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What is an operating system?

When you turn on a computer, it starts up. Windows appear, food pops up, etc. What could be more natural? Well, it’s not that natural in reality! To achieve this little miracle of technology, it is recommended that a base be installed on the computer. Without this base, the computer is just a big box with which you won’t be able to do much (however, none of the things that interest us in this course).

We call this base the operating system. It is by taking it as a base and the programs that can be grafted onto it that we will be able to work, play, surf, etc. It is also the operating system that will help us to manage our files (texts, music, videos, photos…).



You will often hear about os: it is exactly the same thing (“operating system” means “operating system” in English). The term os is very common because it is much faster to say and write. 111 dos, whether in its ibm pc-dos version or in the ms-dos clone versions, did not have a graphical interface. It was possible with great ease to create graphics under the basica language (gw-basic for the clones) delivered with the system, but the commands had to be memorized by the user and typed by hand, which made the system painful to use.

In addition, each application/device pair required its own generic driver, which made the management of these drivers complicated and slowed down the evolution of configurations. Inspired by interfaces such as those of the xerox alto, then the apple lisa and the apple macintosh, the first versions of windows, in 16 bits, were based on the existing bone: ms-dos. This one having been conceived monotask, one launched windows in the same way as a simple program, which thus incorporated some of its functions (like the tracking of the mouse to the system).


What is Windows?


The intrinsic limitation of monotasking, as well as the marginal side of Windows 1 (but even so, the windows only shared the screen without overlapping) did not worry the rival Apple, who was more concerned about the strategy of Ibm5.

Ibm did not think that the graphic mode was viable with the reduced contributions of 640k of the back nor the low resolution of the screens of the time and turned to a multi-window text mode, topview, very reactive, but keeping the discomfort of the back. bill gates called his operating platform windows, because the main innovation of the shell and then of the operating system was the use of display windows

The Windows range is made up of several branches (see the technical branches of Windows section): the first branch, called the 16-bit branch, covers Windows 1 to 3.11 (3.2 in Chinese). It appeared in 1985 and functioned only on compatible PCs, in a 16-bit way; the second branch, known as the Windows NT branch (Windows NT 3.1, NT 4.0, then Windows 2000), appeared in 1993.

It is a growth starting from zero, intended for the personal computers, the servers and the computers not compatible pc. It was first used in companies. With windows xp, released at the beginning of the new millennium, which continues the windows nt branch, this branch is now also general public, and continues with windows vista, windows 7, windows 8 and windows 10; the third branch, sometimes called the windows 9x branch, appeared in 1995 and has existed in parallel with the nt branch.

This branch started with windows 95, followed by windows 98 and windows me. It was better known to the general public and was intended to replace the wackier branch. It is the most zany 32-bit compatible branch for the general public. The graphic interface was compatible with the 32-bit mode but was composed of the ms-dos bone (in version 7.1) natively 16-bit with nevertheless the addition of some modes of improved management of the memory; the fourth branch, known as windows ce branch, appeared in 96 with windows ce 1.0.

It is broken down into embedded systems and light and portable hardware (personal assistant, cell phone). It is the basis of windows mobile and pocket pc; the fifth branch, known as the windows rt branch, designed exclusively for armed processors


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